What is Lyme Disease?
Lyme Disease (not Lyme's Disease) is caused by a spirochete called Borrelia.
A spirochete is a type of bacterium. It is transmitted to dogs through the bite
of a tick. Once in the blood stream, it is carried to many parts of the body.
It is especially likely to localize in joints.
It was first thought that only a few types of ticks could transmit this disease,
but now it appears that several common species may be involved.
Can this disease also affect people?
Yes, but people do not get it directly from dogs. They get it from being bitten
by the same ticks that transmit it to dogs. Therefore, preventing exposure to
ticks is important for you and your dog.
How is a dog affected?
Many people having the disease develop a characteristic rash at the site of
the bite within 3 to 30 days. For these people, the disease can be easily diagnosed
at an early stage. However, symptoms of Lyme Disease are more difficult to detect
in animals than in people.
This characteristic rash does not develop in dogs or cats. Because the other
symptoms of the disease may be delayed or not recognized, and because the symptoms
are similar to those of many other diseases, Lyme Disease in animals is often
not considered until other diseases have been eliminated.
Many dogs affected with Lyme Disease are taken to a veterinary surgeon because
they seem to be experiencing generalized pain and have stopped eating. Affected
dogs have been described as if they were "walking on eggshells" Often these
animals have high fevers.
Dogs may also become lame because of the disease. This painful lameness often
appears suddenly and may shift from one leg to another. If untreated, it may
eventually disappear, only to recur weeks or months later.
Some pets are affected with the Lyme Disease organism for over a year before
they finally show symptoms. By this time, the disease may be quite widespread
in the body.
How is Lyme Disease diagnosed?
Dogs with lameness, swollen joints, and fever may be suspected of having Lyme
Disease. However, other diseases may also cause these symptoms. There are two
blood tests that may be used for confirmation. The first is an antibody test.
This test does not detect the actual spirochete in the blood but does detect
the presence of antibodies created by exposure to the organism. A test can be
falsely negative if the dog is infected but has not yet formed antibodies, or
if it never forms enough antibodies to cause a positive reaction. This may occur
in animals with suppressed immune systems. Some dogs that have been infected
for long periods of time may no longer have enough antibodies present to be
detected by the test. Therefore, a positive test is meaningful, but a negative
The second test is the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. This is also
known as DNA testing. It is very specific and sensitive. However, not all dogs
have the spirochete in their blood cells. If a blood sample is tested, a false
negative may occur. The best sample for testing is the fluid from an affected
How is Lyme Disease treated?
Because the Lyme spirochete is a bacterium, it can be controlled by antibiotics.
However, a lengthy course of treatment is necessary to completely eradicate
the organism. The initial antibiotic selected to treat an infected pet may not
be effective against the disease, especially if the infection is long-standing.
In this situation, a switch to another antibiotic is often effective. Occasionally,
the initial infection will recur, or the pet will become reinfected after being
bitten by another infected tick.
How can I prevent my dog from getting Lyme Disease?
The key to prevention is keeping your dog from being exposed to ticks. Ticks
are found in grassy, wooded, and sandy areas. They find their way onto an animal
by climbing to the top of a leaf, blade of grass, or small tree. Here they wait
until their sensors detect a close-by animal on which to crawl or drop.
Keeping animals from thick underbrush reduces their exposure to ticks. Dogs
should be kept on paths when walked in woods or tall grass areas.
How do I remove a tick from my dog?
Check your pet immediately after it has been in a tick-infected area. If you
find a tick moving on your pet, the tick has not fed. Remove the tick promptly
and place it in rubbing alcohol or crush it between two solid surfaces. If you
find a tick attached to your pet, grasp the tick with fine tweezers or your
finger nails near the dog's skin and firmly pull it straight out. You may need
another person to help restrain your dog. Removing the tick quickly is important
since the disease is not transmitted until the tick has fed for approximately
12 hours. If you crush the tick, do not get the tick's contents, including blood,
on your skin. The spirochete that causes Lyme Disease can pass through a wound
or cut in your skin.
Is there a vaccine that will protect my dog from Lyme Disease?
A vaccine is now available in North America to protect against Lyme Disease.
This vaccine is initially given twice, at two week intervals. An annual booster
is necessary. The vaccine has been shown to be safe and very effective.
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