PUPPIES: RECOMMENDATIONS FOR NEW OWNERS
Owning a dog can be an extremely rewarding experience, but it also carries
with it some responsibility.
What type of playing should I expect from a puppy?
Stimulating play is important during the first week. Stalking and pouncing
are important play behavior in puppies and are necessary for proper muscular
development. If given a sufficient outlet for these behavior with toys, your
puppy will be less likely to use family members for these activities. The best
toys are lightweight and movable. These include wads of paper and rubber balls.
Any toy that is small enough to be swallowed should be avoided.
Can I discipline a puppy?
Disciplining a young puppy may be necessary if its behavior threatens people
or property, but harsh punishment should be avoided. Hand clapping and using
shaker cans or horns can be intimidating enough to inhibit undesirable behavior
However, remote punishment is preferred. Remote punishment consists of using
something that appears unconnected to the punisher to stop the problem. Examples
include using spray bottles, throwing objects in the direction of the puppy
to startle (but not hit) it, and making loud noises. Remote punishment is preferred
because the puppy associates punishment with the undesirable act and not with
When should my puppy be vaccinated?
There are many diseases that are fatal to dogs. Fortunately, many can be prevented
by the use of very effective vaccines. In order to be effective, these vaccines
must be given as a series of injections. Ideally, they are given at between
approximately 6 and 12 weeks of age and cover Distemper, Hepatitis, Parvovirus,
parainfluenza and the kidney diseases. In areas of high infection your veterinary
surgeon may advise a further injection at approximately 16 weeks of age. It
is also worth considering vaccination against tracheobronchitis, often known
as kennel cough although this affects many dogs who have never been near a kennels.
This vaccination can be carried out at the same time as the other injections
and is not an injection but involves drops inserted into the nose.
Why does my puppy need more than one vaccination?
When the puppy is suckling from its mother, it receives a temporary form of
immunity through the mother's milk. This immunity is in the form of proteins
called antibodies. For about 24-48 hours after birth, the puppy's intestine
allows absorption of many of these antibodies directly into the blood stream.
Later during suckling further antibodies are transferred via the milk although
not in such great quantities. This immunity is of benefit during the first few
weeks of the puppy's life, but, at some point, this immunity falls and the puppy
must organize its own long-lasting protection Vaccinations are used for this
purpose. As long as the mother's antibodies are present, vaccinations do not
have such a good chance to stimulate the puppy's immune system. The mother's
antibodies interfere by neutralizing the vaccine.
Many factors determine when the puppy will be able to respond to the vaccinations.
These include the level of immunity in the bitch, how much antibody has been
absorbed, and the number of vaccines given to the puppy.
Modern vaccines have the ability to overcome maternal immunity thus conferring
protection on the puppy while at the same time not causing disease even though
maternal antibodies are still present.
Do all puppies have worms?
Intestinal parasites are common in puppies. Puppies can become infected with
parasites before they are born or later through their mother's milk. Modern
deworming preparations are safe and effective and their use is recommended at
two week intervals, from two weeks of age. It is important that the medication
is repeated since it is usually only the adult worms that are killed. Within
3-4 weeks, the larval stages will have matured and will need to be treated.
Round worms pose a small but definite risk to immunologically susceptible
children therefore it is good practice to regularly administer deworming preparations
to your dog throughout its life. Today combined preparations, eradicating both
roundworms and tapeworms as well as other pathogenic worms are available and
can be administered as tablets, liquids, or granules which can be mixed in the
It is recommended that all adult dogs are wormed at least twice a year and
more frequently if in contact with young children.
Tapeworms are the most common intestinal parasite of dogs. Puppies become
infected with them when they swallow fleas; the eggs of the tapeworm live inside
the flea. When the puppy chews or licks its skin as a flea bites, the flea may
be swallowed. The flea is digested within the dog's intestine; the tapeworm
hatches and then anchors itself to the intestinal lining. Therefore, exposure
to fleas may result in a new infection; this can occur in as little as two weeks.
Dogs infected with tapeworms will pass small segments of the worms in their
feces. The segments are white in color and look like grains of rice. They are
about 3 mm (1/8 in) long and may be seen crawling on the surface of the feces.
They may also stick to the hair under the tail. If that occurs, they will dry
out, shrink to about half their size, and become golden in color.
Tapeworm segments do not pass every day or in every feces sample. Inspection
of several consecutive bowel movements may be needed to find them.
There are lots of choices of dog foods. What should I feed my puppy?
Diet is extremely important in the growing months of a dog's life, and there
are two important criteria that should be met in selecting food for your puppy.
1. It is recommended you feed a well-known make of branded food.
2. Ensure it is specially formulated for puppies.
Feeding a dry, canned, or semi-moist form of dog food is acceptable. Each
has advantages and disadvantages. Dry food is definitely the most inexpensive
form. It can be left in the dog's bowl without drying. The good brands of dry
food are just as nutritious as the other forms. Most veterinary surgeons will
recommend dry food for your puppy, unless the puppy is very fussy when canned
or semi-moist food may be preferred. However remember canned food contains about
75% water compared with only 10% in dry food. Hence dry food, price for price,
usually works out less expensive. Obviously with only a 10% moisture content
in a dry food, compared with 70-80% in a canned food, your puppy will appear
to drink very much more if fed a dry food.
Semi-moist and canned foods are also acceptable. However, both are considerably
more expensive than dry food. They often are more appealing to the dog's taste;
however, they are not more nutritious. If you feed a very tasty food, you are
running the risk of creating a dog with a finicky appetite. In addition, the
semi-moist foods are high in sugar.
Table foods are not recommended. Because they are generally very tasty, dogs
will often begin to hold out for these and not eat their well-balanced dog food.
If you choose to give your puppy table food, be sure that at least 90% of its
diet is good quality commercial puppy food.
We enjoy a variety of things to eat in our diet. However, most dogs prefer
not to change from one food to another unless they are trained to do so by the
way you feed them. Do not feel guilty if your dog is happy to just eat one food
day after day, week after week.
Commercials for dog food can be very misleading. If you watch carefully you
will notice that media commercials promote dog food on one basis, TASTE. Nutrition
is rarely mentioned. Most of the "gourmet" foods are marketed to appeal to owners
who want the best for their dogs; however, they do not offer the dog any nutritional
advantage over a good quality dry food, and they are far more expensive. If
your dog eats a gourmet food for very long, it will probably not be happy with
other foods. If it needs a special diet due to a health problem later in life,
it is very unlikely to accept it.
How do I ensure that my puppy is well socialized?
The socialization period for dogs is between 4 and 12 weeks of age. During
that time, the puppy is very impressionable to social influences. If it has
good experiences with men, women, children, cats, other dogs, etc., it is likely
to accept them throughout life. If the experiences are absent or unpleasant,
it may become apprehensive or adverse to any of them. Therefore, during the
period of socialization, you are encouraged to expose your dog to as many types
of social events and influences as possible. However since the puppy will not
have built up a complete immunity from the vaccination program until approximately
14 weeks of age you have the dilemma of endeavoring to socialize him on the
one hand and trying to isolate him from exposure to potentially harmful diseases
on the other. The aim is to strike a balance and obviously not expose him to
the risk of disease but at the same time ensure that as much socialization as
possible, both with people and other animals takes place.
What can be done about fleas on my puppy?
Many effective flea control preparations for use on adult dogs are not suitable
for use on puppies, therefore it is worthwhile consulting your veterinary surgeon
regarding flea control in the young animal. Today there are new, innovative
products which are eminently suitable for use on even very tiny puppies. It
must be emphasized that flea control in the puppy is equally as important as
with the older dog and must be coupled with the control of fleas in the environment.
Can I trim my puppy's sharp toe nails?
Puppies have very sharp toe nails. They can be blunted and shortened using
an emery board or a piece of carpenter's fine sandpaper. They can also be trimmed
with nail scissors or with clippers made for dogs and cats. However if you remove
too much nail, you will cut the quick and cause bleeding and pain. If the puppy
has clear or light colored nails it is possible to see the quick as a pink line
running through the nail. With black nails this is more difficult and therefore
these should be trimmed at only about 1 mm a time until the puppy is beginning
to resent it when it is likely you are getting very near to the quick. It is
useful to have a men's shaving styptic pencil available so that if you inadvertently
cut the quick you can stop the bleeding without causing pain or discomfort to
What are ear mites?
Ear mites (Otodectes cyanotis) are tiny parasites that live in the ear canal
of dogs (and cats). The most common sign of ear mite infection is scratching
and shaking of the ears. Sometimes the ears will appear dirty because of a black
material in the ear canal; this material is sometimes shaken out. Ear mites
spend most of their time within the ear canal although they can be found on
the face around the ears and sometimes around the base of the dog's tail since
dogs curl up with their head near their rump. Transmission is by direct contact
between animals and the mites can be transmitted between dogs and cats. Ear
mites are common in litters of puppies if the mother is infected or alternatively
if the bitch has been brought up in contact with a cat or cats with mites.
Ear infections may also cause the production of a dark discharge in the ear
canals. It is important that your puppy is examined to be sure the black material
is due to ear mites and not infection.
Why should I have my female dog spayed?
Spaying offers several advantages. The female's heat periods result in about
2-3 weeks of vulval bleeding. This can be quite annoying if your dog is kept
indoors. During this period she is attractive to any neighborhood male dogs
and these can sometimes cause considerable nuisance. Your bitch will have a
heat period about every 6 months. In some cases, despite your best efforts,
the bitch will become pregnant. Spaying is the removal of uterus and ovaries.
Heat periods no longer occur and thus unplanned litters of puppies are prevented.
It has been proven that as the bitch gets older, there is a significant incidence
of breast cancer and uterine infections if she has not been spayed. Spaying
before she has any heat periods will prevent these problems. If you do not plan
to breed from your dog, it is strongly recommended that she be spayed either
just before her first estrus or midway between estrus periods. It is important
not to neuter the bitch if she is not physically mature.
Why should I have my male dog neutered?
Neutering offers several advantages. Male dogs are attracted to a female dog
in heat and will climb over or go through fences to find her. Male dogs are
more aggressive and more likely to fight, especially with other male dogs. As
dogs age, the prostate gland frequently enlarges and causes difficulty urinating
and defecating. Neutering will solve, or greatly help, all of these problems
that come with owning a male dog. It is worth remembering that all service dogs,
Guide Dogs, Hearing Dogs and Dogs for the Disabled, both male and female, are
If I choose to mate my female dog, when should that be done?
If you plan to mate your dog, she should have at least one or two heat periods
first. This will allow her to physically mature allowing her to be a better
mother without such a physical drain on her. It is not recommended you allow
breeding after 5 years of age unless she has been bred from prior to that. Having
her first litter after 5 years of age increases the risk of problems during
the pregnancy and/or delivery. Once your dog has had her last litter, it is
worth considering spaying in order to prevent uterine infections and other reproductive
Training your puppy
Responsible ownership involves having a well-trained dog and this training
should be commenced as soon as the puppy is acquired. Puppies are continuously
learning from the moment their eyes are open and responsible breeders will ensure
that the elements of training have commenced long before you acquire the puppy
at 6-8 weeks of age. Remember training is not some formal process but should
occur all the time we are together with a dog.
Training and socialization are intermixed, a well socialized dog is invariably
a well trained dog and vice versa. Thus puppies should be socialized They should
be handled by family members and strangers as soon as possible and then be introduced
to other dogs, preferably to puppies, as soon as their inoculation program allows.
Many training clubs and some veterinary practices today run puppy classes in
order to initiate training and ensure adequate socialization takes place. Inquire
from your veterinary surgeons.
Basic training of a puppy is not a very difficult task provided certain simple
rules are followed:-
1. Keep the tasks simple and only go one step at a time.
2. Teach sounds and words as commands and not sentences
3. When trying to program the puppy to respond to your command, avoid distractions
and competing activities, for example you will never get your puppy to learn
to walk round the garden on a collar and lead if Aunt Emma is playing ball with
her mother in another part of the garden.
4. Be effusive with your praise and don't be afraid to use food rewards.
5. Ignore failures and certainly do not punish and finally.
6. Be consistent and this applies to all members of the family.
Local training clubs are an ideal way of ensuring socialization and dog and
owner participation in basic training methods. Other means of training available
involve one to one methods, ideally involving both owner and dog with a trainer
or sometimes sending the dog away to be trained. However these are certainly
less fun and sometimes not as successful as the owner/pet participation and
are often reserved for problem animals who have to undergo behavioral therapy.
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